Abstracts - Vol. 10 (2021) No.2

Some demographic characteristics of long-term commuting in Hungary


The study aims to show the most important demographic characteristics of long-term commuting workers and the emerging territorial disparities using the latest available statistics. The main motivation for commuting, including long commuting, is still to get the job they deem appropriate, but about a quarter of a million people take on much greater burdens than average and only travel home weekly or less frequently in Hungary. Most of them make this decision by force, as there are no job opportunities in their place of residence, but the income they provide is very important for their families. Long-term commuters mostly do seasonal work (construction, catering, etc.) and work in physical jobs. Unsurprisingly, men are more likely to take on the life form with increased physical and psychological strain, but not only the heads of the family in their forties, but also young people in their 20s who are not yet independent of their families are represented in large numbers. Long commuting is characterised by marked territorial inequalities, and those affected mainly start from villages, despite the fact that the high level of public employment in the most disadvantaged areas is affecting the direction of the stay of the workforce.

KEYWORDS: long-term commuting, territorial inequalities, demographic characteristics




„He only knows about everything, but does not experience anything!” – deciding on weekly commuting in terms of educational qualifications


This paper presents the group of domestic commuters who can only go home and meet their families – in the best case – once a week. It is based on a survey conducted in 2019 in which 24 commuters together with their family members at home were interviewed about why they had decided on working far away from home. Looking for similar and different characteristic features, we have analyzed the interviews in terms of the respondents’ educational qualifications. Our results prove undoubtedly that the lower qualifications the respondents have, the fewer job options they will have; moreover, they are also in vulnerable position concerning getting accommodation, spending free time or finding suitable means of transport to go home.

KEYWORDS: domestic commuter, weekly commuting, professional qualification




„We were born here, we grew up here, our relatives and our children are here… everything are in our village”. Weekly commuting in a village of Tiszahát


The study present the weekly commuting in a small village of 1600 resident in Tiszahát. The economic situation of the settlement, employment and income opportunities are lower than national average, which also has an extremely strong impact on the livability of the village. The local primary labor market can employ few workers, other employees can work in public employment or they can work as a seasonal worker in agriculture buti it does not provide an income that can be calculated all year. There are few opportunities in the region, so they can not work in the nearby settlements. Many locals have to go to remote settlement for work. We prepared interviews to examine: how weekly commuting became popular in the village and how it affected local families and the local community.

KEYWORDS: commuting, weekly commuting, village, employment, local community




Two sides of one coin. Social network of commuter and their families


People around a person have important roles of the social integration and form of quality of life. Changes in the life circumstances like getting a job or changes of the workplaces have significant effect to egocentric social network. In a new workplace usually shape new relationships. Then again, it is also possible that besides increasing of number of new contacts, there will be those, which are drop out from the personal network. Paper shows the rearrange of the personal social network of people who works as a commuter and theirs partnerships. Commuter is a person who works far from his/her home and he/she goes home weekly or rarely. This topic was examined making interviews in 2019 (N=24). On the one hand, these interviews revealed a wide and confidant family and kin networks. On the other hand, it seems that, due to the workplaces and the common activities at the workplaces and other places (accommodation, shopping etc.), commuter can make new, long-term and confidant friendships which complete his/her family relationships and make their social capital stronger.

KEYWORDS: social relationships, commuter, friendships, work related contacts, social capital




Alone together? Shared space, time, and solidarity in commuter relationships


Long-distance relationships have always existed, however, as a result of globalization, modern communication technology, as well as widespread travel opportunities, their number has increased. This study focuses on commuter relationships, that is, those couples that only see each other during the weekend or in every few weeks due to working far from their home. 24 interviews were conducted with commuter couples in small towns and villages. A key research question involved satisfaction levels among interviewees. Dissatisfaction with their relationship was relatively rare, except some women complained about increased household tasks. Daily communication and modern communication technology had an immense role in boosting satisfaction levels. Technology has also contributed to the creation of shared space and time among commuter couples. Regular communication, special dates, and shared plans for the future also raised relationship solidarity. To survive time apart and make time spent together more special timework was used, which was done together for the purpose of influencing the subconscious and subjective sense of time.

KEYWORDS: commuter relationships, long-distance relationships, commuting, relationship solidarity, time and space




The place and role of children in long commuting families – parental decisions and upbringing


The study examines families in which one or both partners are commuting for longer periods (hetelés). Our research questions focus on those families who are raising children. As a result, their family life is largely determined by the specific operation based on the changing dynamics of physical, emotional proximity and distance. The analysis which processes qualitative results focuses on children and reveals the changes that have taken place in the family as a result of long term commuting. These include attachment in the family, the care and upbringing of children, and the place and role of the child in the family. In the lives of the families studied, we encountered different parental attitudes and parent-child relationships.

KEYWORDS: children in the family, long commuting families, bringing up children, family decisions, family roles




„Ratio Generationis” – Aspects for responsible generational research


Huge amount of literature has been published in recent years on topic of generation research but of varying quality. There is a significant interest in the topic, although an increasing amount of contradictory and methodologically questionable results have come to light. People develop prejudices and beliefs based on popular media, which could be counterbalanced by scientific works, but there is a noticable amount of thorough criticism against them. It is still a question, whether generation is the proper response to certain phenomena or we have just „generated” it and most charachteristics are rather related to age or life span? Cautious research is complicated and lengthy, therefore many either choose to perform superficial research or to go so in-depth that does not allow answering problems and return to just individual differences. Some conclude by refusing the generational approach altogether. In these circumstances a kind of „responsible” generational research is to be suggested, which turns from dead ends to the scientific way and finally tries to find „ration in generations” keeping in mind all the criticism of the approach. I summerize cosiderations in my work to find this right direction.

KEYWORDS: generation, generation research, critics, age, life span




„Women Question” in the Political Parties’ Discourse in Post-Revolution Tunisia (2011–2014)


For more than fifty years, the Tunisian political system has been considered as a so-called secular system that had provided women with many rights in education, healthcare and in economic and political sectors, besides that woman friendly family laws reforms After the overthrown of Ben Ali regime on 14th of January 2011, the Tunisian society witnessed an economic, social and political significant transformation. A new Islamic-secular discourse have been raised debates both in public and private sphere, women’s rights have been one of the incendiary topics of these debates. Therefore, with the participation of the Islamists in political life, the country has faced a new political dynamic which made the pollical scene complex and ambiguous. In this context, discourse analysis is a very important and crucial to be used as a method to approach to the research main question. Some leaders’ speeches, events which took place during the democratic transition are examined and analyzed in order to serve the research’s analytic interest through the relevant materials.

KEYWORDS: discourse analysis, women representation in political discourse, post-revolution Tunisia




Seven years with Orion


The collection managed by the Voices of the 20th Century Archive and Research Group offers unique opportunities for social researchers. Due to the nature of the march of time, a seemingly endless series of one-time, unrepeatable and irreclaimable moments awaits the masses of researchers so that they take the old research with a new approach and a fresh perspective.
The collection does not only provide a chance to quote and refer to the research materials that have remained from the 20th century. We can plan to re-analyze or even to continue or repeat them. Researchers maneuvering through the restrictions of state socialism have left us a legacy that deserves special attention. I believe that these researchers deserve attention looking back even from the 21st century, and that their research should form the basis of today’s research. As a result of the change of regime, social environment and everyday life have changed significantly. Countless aspects of the transformation affecting the whole of people’s lifestyle have remained unexplored to this day, although studying and processing them would be urgently needed.
The Orion research, commissioned by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and led by Judit H. Sas, is one of the treasures of the archive which offers sources for researchers dedicated to the field of the life of workers. In my study, I give an account of my most important personal practical experiences, from the sorting and digitization of original source materials written by typewriter to the partial repetition of research.

KEYWORDS: Orion Company, The research of the Orion Electric Company, Judit H. Sas