Women in poverty during the socialist era in Hungary

Ibolya Czibere

A typical feature of the early socialist sources demonstrating the pauperdom of the agrarian and industrial Hungarian society before 1945 is that though they proved to be really thorough and can be utilized well even today, most of them were written as a form of political propaganda highlighting the peculiarities of the capitalist suppression before 1945 while ignoring the survival of poverty into the times following 1945. Considering these sources it may seem that the political and economic transition after 1949 at once solved the uncertainties of social deprivation, however they suppressed the facts that the governments in the period following the World War II could not manage the excessive poverty developed between 1900 and 1945. 

Effects of Poverty and Wealth on Identity

István Murányi

In the presentation we are referring to the analysis of a few variables of three national databases (Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia) of a recently completed international survey study (MYPLACE project). Empirically, MYPLACE employs a combination of survey, interview and ethnographic research instruments to provide new, pan-European data that not only measure levels of participation but capture the meaning young people attach to it.

Flyvbjerg (2006) contrasts ‘random selection’ with ‘information oriented selection’ where the former delivers representativeness and generalizability and the latter allows small samples to be theoretically productive through the careful selection of contrasting cases or ‘critical cases’.

Women in urban poverty in Hungary. Maids and working women in the labour market before 1945

Ibolya Czibere 

The economic and social transition caused by the industrial revolution at the end of the 19th century has brought about several changes in Hungary. The development of infrastructure and transportation enabled women to access new job opportunities, to abandon traditional communities and to try new ways of living.

In Hungary, keeping maids continued to be a social custom and even between the two world wars affected a large number of people.