Abstracts - Vol. 9 (2020) No.3

Thomas Hobbes and the dilemmas of the natural state I. The axiomatic nature of total war


The purpose of this paper is to reflect on some the ideas of Thomas Hobbes, one of the founders of modern political philosophy, best known for his masterpiece, Leviathan. The aim of this essay is not to provide a full scale analysis of Hobbes’ main work, nor to present his moral or political philosophy, nor to reflect on the significance of his impact on later political thinkers. The aim is more modest, and the theme under scrutiny is more narrow: the paper is devoted to a critical analysis of the main premise (state of the nature) of Hobbes’ theory of power, including the ambivalent character of the state of nature, as well as the logical dilemmas that arise during the analysis.
After a general presentation of Hobbes’s philosophy and of the logical construction of his work, I will tend to focus on two aspects of the state of nature: firstly, I will analyse the assumed analogy between the state of nature and the Book of Genesis; secondly, I will examine whether the „war of all against all” is an axiomatic outcome of the „primitive” state. It turns out, that the answers for these questions are not so unanbiguous.

KEYWORDS: human nature, natural state, everyone’s war against everyone, civil society



Does the corruption affect to the voters? – a Bayesian econometric analysis


The study examines the agenda-setting aspirations of Hungarian political life between 2010 and 2016 from a corruption research perspective. Using the available data, we estimate, based on the monthly data series of a six-year period, using different statistical methods, whether the allocation of European Union funds used as a proxy for corruption had an impact on the support of the ruling party. The results of the applied Bayesian vector autoregression do not provide evidence for the hypothesis that the increase in corruption associated with the increase in EU subsidies reduces the popularity of the ruling party among the entire voting population.

KEYWORDS: corruption, econometric model, bayesian vector autoregression, voting preferences



Social stratification among Transylvanian youngsters: youth in the new social structure


We investigate changes in the socio-economical, labor market, and educational situation of the Hungarian youngsters from Transylvania; the investigation is based on two large-scale (MOZAIK 2001 and Youth 2016) surveys. The principal research question is the choice of the paradigm from the toolbox of social stratification that can describe the inequalities within this group. Our conclusions state that the influence traditional variables diminished, and that horizontal differences must be taken also into consideration to better describe stratification.

KEYWORDS: youngsters, consumption, lifestyle, status, stratification



Interconnections between social work and the natural environment


The aim of my study is to examine the appearance of ecology and natural environment in the theory and practice of social work. By reviewing international literature, my aim is to review and systematize basic theories and professional directions. I also consider it important to look at the Hungarian aspects. Global environmental changes and social changes interact, and the social work profession evolves, and incudes new trends and approaches while reflecting ever-changing challenges. The relationship between the person and his/her environment has always been one of the central themes of social work, but the pursuit of sustainability and the focus on the natural environment may bring a new dimension to the interpretation of the person-in-environment approach. In my paper, I attempt to understand the values and motivations of ‘green social work’, ‘environmental social work’ and ‘eco-social work’ and I attempt to understand the relationship between social work and the natural environment, and examine the roles social workers may carry on related to the global environmental changes.

KEYWORDS: green social work, environmental social work, eco-social work, person-in-environment approach, global environmental changes, relationship between people and nature



The role of a children group for the participant, underprivileged children in the family care system 1995–2005


The aim of this paper is to analyse the methods and effects of a children group, which existed from 1995 till 2005. The relevance of this group is, that the beginning of this period preludes the constitution of the Hungarian child protection law. After the transmission period the emerging social service system provided (or at least tried) supports and services. Those families whose children were involved in this child group were dealing with unemployment, poverty, lack of proper housing, abuse, deviance and addictions. The significance of this group that the given service was easily ductile to the needs of the children and families.

KEYWORDS: child protection, prevention, group work, social work, transmission, child welfare





Abstracts - Vol. 9 (2020) No.2

The perception of the families and the concerned social workers about the promotion of the well-being of the families and social mobility


In the study our goal is to analyse the perception of the families and concerned social workers. The research was established in two regions in Hungary: in an underprivileged and disadvantaged micro-region in North Hungary and in the agglomeration around Budapest. The main focus was the perception of the available educational, social, child welfare and health services and supports. The starting point was their knowledge about these services. Beside the perception of the families, the opinion of the experts in the social support system about the value and quality level of their work is important. Analysing the quality of these services and supports is crucial to understand the mobility chance of the children living in these micro-regions. In our research public questionnaire and interviews with the families and experts were completed. The results show, that without capability and talent development for the children and the lack of welfare services, the mobility chance and opportunity of this families are extremely low. With the current social, education and health care system, and the lack of cultural possibilities, these children stuck in their disadvantaged circumstances without the hope or chance for better opportunities. The social interventions in the current child welfare system is only enough for damage control and not for prevention or increasing equality.

KEYWORDS: social work, child welfare services, social mobility, support for families with children



The role of family and child welfare services in promoting social mobility – from a staff perspective


The study aims to seek answers to the following questions: how do Hungarian child and family social workers perceive their role in addressing poverty, the potential they have to tackle poverty, and the barriers they face when filling this role. The analyses are based on a survey of 600 social workers at child and family services conducted at the turn of 2018 and 2019. Our findings indicate a consensus among professionals that social work does have a role in addressing poverty. At the same time, the data suggest a tension between the role perception of social workers and the potential (or rather the lack of potential) for filling this role. There is no difference in the role perceptions of professionals according to their individual level sociodemographic variables. However, an important finding of the study is that perceptions of the possibilities for alleviating poverty depend on the socio-demographic characteristics of the area where they carry out their activity. In settlements with high shares of poor or Roma populations, social workers are less likely to think that addressing poverty can be part of their professional daily routine. Thus, the situation of poor families living in these settlements is exacerbated by the fact that it is these places where the child and family service system is the least capable of taking on the role of tackling poverty.

KEYWORDS: addressing poverty; perception of role; social workers; child and family social services, Hungary

Abstracts - Vol. 9 (2020) No.1

Preferred leadership style, leadership and entrepreneurial inclination among university students


Although many researches have been conducted on leadership styles and university students are participants in exploratory social science research quite frequently, fewer examples can be found on the application of the Full Range Leadership model among the youth. In this article, the authors examine preferred leadership styles among Hungarian students, and map their connections with managerial and entrepreneurial inclination. The online questionnaire used in the research was completed by university students studying economics, technology and social studies in the capital and beyond. The questionnaire was completed by 335 university students. The results are exploratory, and they seem to modify the existing typologies. Four distinct leadership styles could be observed within the target group, embodying the transformative, supportive, defensive, and laissez-faire leadership types. Based on multivariate analysis one may suppose that among students leadership willingness is positively connected to transformative leadership, while entrepreneurial inclination to the transformative and supportive styles.

KEYWORDS: preferred leadership style, leadership aspirations, entrepreneurial inclination, university students



Leadership challenges in virtual environment


The companies connected to the global value chain inevitably and necessarily apply virtualized solutions in their work organization. As such, the appropriate implementation of the shoring strategies, the increasing competition and the supply-demand imbalance on the local market of the high-skilled workers, all puts the existing organizational and leadership practices to the test. The article aims to highlight the main challenges the virtual team leaders (VTL) are facing and some best practices that might widen the toolset of the modern VTL. The results are based on a case study of a multinational info-communication (ICT) technology service company in which experienced managers and leaders shared their strategies. The main takeaways of the empirical research are (i) the emphasis on the “early-adopter” behavior and the proper usage of the latest technology in the communication, (ii) the importance of the ability of building trust and setting common goals; (iii) despite that everyone is perfectly connected via the internet, the regular personal presence is still the most powerful leadership tool.

KEYWORDS: virtual teams, virtual team management, leadership, global organisation, trust




Functions of global career management


Maintaining competitiveness is one of the long-term strategic goals for companies. Beside tangible and intangible assets, the value of human capital is continuously growing, thanks to changes in the labour market. A loyal, highly skilled employee makes a significant contribution to organizational success through competencies, experience and skills. The career management system of multinational companies became more attractive by the possibility of international assignments, which is a very complicated process requiring complex planning. This system is considered global for several reasons: its transnational nature, international experience gained by the employees and, ultimately, as part of a successful process, the employee pursues an individual career on a global scale.
Creating a global career management system thus involves many HR functions. Emphasis should be placed on finding suitable employees, selecting, onboarding, mentoring, on methods and the evaluators in the performance appraisal process, providing feedback regularly and in an appropriate manner, achieving and maintaining motivation, developing competencies and supporting the balance in mental health.

KEYWORDS: human capital, global career, career management, HR functions, performance, retainment, competence




Obstacles for women in career advancement


Today the level of knowledge, qualifications of female are immensely increasing, but despite their skills there are still encounter obstacles in their careers, and women still appear to be underrepresented in top-level leadership positions. Many analysis findings indicated that there is a strong negativ relationship bertween the impact of the old traditions and women career developement.
This paper attempts to identify all the obstacles and gender-related segregation of the labour market such as vertical and horizontal segregations and also raises awareness of that complex problem. Because there is a triple burden on graduate and leading women, work at home, their job and the struggle with the sexist working environment.

KEYWORDS: women, glass ceiling, labor marke, organization, discrination




Limits of the relationships in the roma communities living on the margins of society in Budapest


In this essay, I aim to summarize the main characteristics of the relationship structure of poor Roma families in Budapest. The generational changes in the relationship structure are illustrated by interviews and a short review of the relevant literature. In my research, I try to find the answer to the question, whetherthe examined segregated streets and apartment blocks – individually or collectively – can be called a community. And also if these segregated areas have a describable connection limit, if we can describe them in a geographical or social sense, or ifthese relationship have ethnical boundaries. I recorded my semi-structured interviews in the 8th and 9th district of Budapest in 2017. I interviewed twenty people from ages of sixteen to fifty-five. All parts of the interviews are accompanied by the related analytical and explanatory notes.

KEYWORDS: poverty, social exclusion, social network, roma




Representations of induced abortion in the Hungarian online media


This study focuses on how induced abortion is represented in the Hungarian online media in relation to the reception of the public debate on the new Polish abortion law. The study was aimed at revealing the major themes, the embedding conceptual network and the framing of induced abortion in the online press. Since the press is an essential influencing factor of public opinion due to its broad publicity, research should focus on the characteristics of the discourse in whose space the concerned individuals form their views and make decisions on abortion. A thematic analysis of relevant press releases revealed eight major themes that framed abortion in a specific manner: thematization of induced abortion as a social/demographic issue; legislative issues of; and attitudes towards, abortion; abortion as an act of (physical) self-determination; contents related to the abortion decision; to its causes and consequences; and depiction of women choosing abortion. Furthermore, the analysis revealed the themes most frequently associated with abortion and potentially related themes typically not associated with it.

KEYWORDS: induced abortion, representations, social discourse, abortion law, abortion attitudes




Structure and communitas. Subcultural problemsolving knowledge in an alternative high school


The paper describes the relationship between subcultural and school/institutional interpretations in the inner discourse of an alternative school (the ’Diákház’) in Budapest. Interpretations and practices, that belonging two different interpretive frameworks, appear simultaneously and intertwined in the Diákház communication scene. This contributes to problem-solving capacities/knowledge that individually do not appear in either of the two. In this discourse, the subcultural manifestations of difference, deviance, marginality, resistance or communitas, and the manifestations of knowledge, autonomy, responsibility and the hierarchical structure of the school sometimes appear in opposition, sometimes in reinforcement to each other. The knowledge formed in the discourse can be used by the Diákház to keep (formerly drop-out) students within the institution, and by the students to reduce their own feeling of invalidity. In this way, the Diákház is able to use the two opposite social states, communitas and structure, to its own benefit.

KEYWORDS: communitas, structure, subculture, school, drop-out students, invalidity



Qualitative methods in HRM research: they can offer more than an escape route from statistics


Qualitative research methods became more and more popular in business and management disciplines. Even in economics there is an intense dispute about the wasted opportunities due to the general refusal of qualitative approaches (Lenger 2019). We should also mention, however, that successful qualitative research projects always existed in various areas of economics, they were just not frequent and not part of the mainstream routine.

Abstracts - Vol. 8 (2019) No.4

Mobilization incongruence in the Hungarian local electioms


In local elections, national voting patterns are often not repeated as results show significant incongruence in terms of turnout, party performance and seat shares. Political science explains these various differences with several distinct theoretical frameworks that approach this incongruence from the aspect of voter behavior. The aim of this study is not to provide an alternative for these conventional explanations but to complement them with the detailed analysis of mobilization in an attempt to clear up certain gaps in the models. My main proposition is that parties can mobilize their supporters for the local elections with differing effectiveness producing incongruence in voter turnout and seat shares. In the capital and in the larger cities there is a mobilization gap mainly affecting left-wing voters that causes lower turnout and weaker electoral performance by these parties. This gap can most probably be explained by a combination of social and institutional factors and has a profound effect on election outcomes.

KEYWORDS: local elections, second order elections, mobilization, turnout, voting behavior



The political representation of Hungary’s ethnic minorities in the context of voter turnouts in the local self-governmental elections and in the parliamentary elections


The political representation of minorities within a nation-state is a task that has always posed a great challenge to countries with substantial ethnic minorities, since both the hardships of establishing an adequate legislative environment, both the sensitivity of the subject make it exceedingly difficult for the legislator to develop a sufficient system. The issue of the proper representation of those 13 recognised minorities that are considered constituent components ofthe state were part of Hungary’s political history since the regime change, and for a rather long period of time it seemed that the adequate solution for their political representation was the local governmental system of ethnic minorities. Since 2011 however, the electoral system makes it possible for ethnic minorities to be represented within the Hungarian Parliament as well, which raises the question of whether this will shift the attention of the affected minority groups from the local self-governments towards the parliamentary representation. In this paper, after reviewing the changes within the legislative environment and – in close connection with that – the problems surrounding the issue of political representation of ethnic minorities, I will attempt to answer this emerging question through a brief analyses based on the turnout-data regarding the 2014 and the 2019 elections local governmental elections.

KEYWORDS: local self-governments, ethnic minorities, minority-representation, parliamentary elections, voter turnout



Incumbency advantage of mayors in cities with county rights in Hungary


There are twenty-three cities with county rights in Hungary. These cities are playing extremely important role because of their location, population and their administrative duties. For these reasons they can fall prey to national parties and political actors even during local elections. The aim of this study is to analyze these settlements in regard to the incumbency of mayors. Incumbency means the holding of an office, and the incumbent politician is the current holder of a political office. My goal is to show – by quantitative comparison – that the so-called incumbent advantage is prevalent in these cities. I also examine whether the candidates of the winning parties at the first order general elections are faring better than their competitors.

KEYWORDS: incumbency, local elections, mayors, electoral studies, second order elections, cities with county rights



The 2019 local elections in Szeged


The 2019 local, municipal election outclasses the second-order elections in the given political constellation. This is especially true in the case of Szeged, where the opposition – unlike the situation at the national level – has the power for a long time. To change this situation, the governing parties, taking advantage of their dominant position – and using all means – conducted a very vigorous campaign, changing the city into a battlefield. According to the results, the governemt’s attempt was not successfull, it was rather contraproductive. The reigning mayor and city management won an unprecedented victory. The root cause of it is a special urban policy which extracted the local politics from the partyfights and overrode party interests, and which represented the interests of the city succesfully and with credibility even against cross-wind. Based on the cooperation of the entire opposition the implemented urban policy is symbolized by and embodied in the person of the mayor in office since 2002.

KEYWORDS: municipal election, Szeged, election campaign, mayor and representatives nominations, election result



2019 Nyíregyháza City Council election.The Rawlsian interpretation of the local electoral reform


One of the main perspectives and urgent tasks of the newly formed government following the general elections of 2010 was to reform the local eletoral system. It is true, that the number of seats of the local representative bodies were significantly decreased, but it begs the question whether this change can reasonably explain the fact that the government considered this step as one of the first and most significant measures of its governance. To raise this question is justified by the fact that the reform (Act No. L of 2010 on the election of local government representatives and mayors) was introduced on June 14, 2010, with only sixteen days after the new Parliament approved and voted for the government’s program, and elected Viktor Orbán as prime minister of Hungary. After a brief presentation of the institutional framewortk of the local electoral system, the aim of this paper is twofold: first, I would examine whether the local electoral reform of 2010 could be considered as a „fair” step, based on John Ralws’ conception of „justice as fairness”, second, I would like to explain the actual process of transforming votes into local legislative seats in the case of the city of Nyíregyháza, in 2019.

KEYWORDS: local elections; electoral reform; justice as fairness



How should we think about Europe?
The model adaptation and model formation strategy of the Hungarian political elite


In the past decades, researchers in Hungary have looked at almost all segments of the behavior and organization of elites, nevertheless they have dealt surprisingly little with how external actors (Europe, the West) affect the actions and way of thinking of the elites. The lack of approaches from this perspective is so apparent because the European orientation of the elites has changed twice in the past thirty years. (In the 1980s and starting from the second half of the 1990s.) The essay focuses on presenting two concepts of Europe, of which one is based on model adaptation (the opposition represents this approach) the other on model formation (which is characteristic of the governing parties). The essay shows the origins of both, as well as their connections to macro and micro political motifs. Within the frameworks of this, the study touches upon why the appearance of the model adaptation perspective was adequate in the 1980s as well as to why the model forming approach to Europe appeared on the right in the middle of the 1990s as its challenger. The analysis does more than just dynamically present the past thirty years, it also aims to show that we have to integrate Hungarian political history in a broader sense into our studies if we want to understand the changes that have occurred in the past decades concerning the relationship of the elites to the West. The stratum which Fidesz has brought to surface lays deep in Hungarian political history. We have to take this stratum into consideration even if we find this perhaps unattractive and we reject it.

KEYWORDS: Elites, external examples, model adaptation, model transformation, complex political history



Studying further in higher education as a human capital investment


In our paper, we examine the motives of further studies in higher education among higher education students, as well as how socio-demographic variables modify these motives. Our research method is quantitative. We used a research database gathered in the historical Partium region in 2014 (N = 1792). The theoretical backgrounds of our research are the human capital theory and Bourdieu’s capital conversion model. Based on ten motives of further studies, we made a cluster analysis and examined the relationships of these clusters and the socio-demographic background variables. Our finding is that the most important motive of further studies among students was expanding knowledge. Therefore, the motive of getting higher wages in the future, which is the central aspect in the human capital model, proved to be of minor importance. Based on the capital conversion theory students wanted to gain cultural and social capital when they decided to study further, as both can be profitable for them in the future. However, while the motives of further studies were affected by the social background of students, contrary to our hypothesis, financial motives were not more important for those students coming from disadvantage backgrounds than for other students.

KEYWORDS: motives of higher education studies, human capital model, conversion of capital, quantitative method


Abstracts - Vol. 8 (2019) No.3

Rural youths and their lack of mobility


International research on the lack of mobility and its causes among people in rural areas primarily focuses on motivations for emigration and consequences of immigration. In the first half of our study we summarize the findings of the research described above. We explain the relationship between poverty and lack of mobility, review the link between agriculture and local mobility, predominantly through the functions of rural businesses. We explore the return migration of youths, especially those who move back to their village after a long period of education and/or job search. We revisit structural theories that connect migration to different types of capital and shed light on the impact of changing perceptions on rural life. We use longitudinal quantitative studies and their statistics to analyze the characteristics of the lack of mobility among Hungarian rural youths and emigration patterns between 2010-2017. The second half of our manuscript delineates the results of studies done by the Mobility Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The pertinent articles and case studies examine the role of social bonds in the lack of mobility, types of employment among rural youths, and how those influence their attachment to their village. Mobility case studies among the youths are also analyzed, along with the social representation of their identity, categories of success, the effects of poverty, their family bonds, perspectives for the future, as well as the consequences of the social and regional characteristics of their villages.

KEYWORDS: migration, lack of mobility, rural youths, regional inequalities



Advantages of the home ground
The role of the social contacts in the immobile status of the rural youth


The paper deals with the effects of the structure and the working of the egocentric network to the immobile status of rural youth. The research was made in 2018 among 19-25-year-old youth living in villages with not more than 2500 inhabitants. More, than a hundred (104) structured interview was made: 53 youth and 51 parents. Firstly, the study shows the network size and composition of the examined population, then the influence of the revealed functions of the egocentric network of the youth to their immobility. Based on the data the egocentric network of the youth mainly consist of strong ties: close kin and other relatives. From the weak ties the most frequent contacts belong to the education institutions as primary or grammar school, university. The local schools have a great role in the forming of the friendships. The local working place contacts, neighbours and acquaintanceships are not general actors of the egocentric networks of the youth.

KEYWORDS: egocentric social network, immobile status, rural youth, strong ties, weak ties.



Where do young villagers work?

Types of social bonds and occupational characters of young generations living in small villages


One of the defining elements of local identity is the opportunity to work and the chance ofearning money. These factors are especially important in small villages within low-populated rural areas, where due to changes in the production structure and land ownership job opportunities become less and less. In the absence of livelihood opportunities and adequate income for young people living in the countryside, the migration process is intensifying, the villages are aging and become more and more depopulated. A smaller part of young villagers however remain in the settlement, with new marginalized settlers from urban areas, who appear alongside them.
Our case study, based on 104 interviews in 12 settlements, seeks to find whether young people – aged 19-25 – look at village life as a constraint or an opportunity. The central question is whether they think that this marginal status, with an assumingly cheap village life, is the only choice for them, or they are convinced that they are staying in small villages due to their conscious choice in favour of a rural lifestyle.
Focusing on employment strategies, the aim of this paper is to look at the dimensions of local attachment of the target group, and to show the various labour market characteristics of the target groupthat develops within the given framework.

KEYWORDS: local attachment, village youth, labour market status, employees characters



Here you can or should stay? Narratives of mobility


In this case study that focuses on mobilities’ narratives, we exam the experiences that works against mobility. Thus we are curious how to effect individual experiences (studies, employees), possibly in a larger city or abroad, small mobilities (vacation, office work in a city), how to effect on the duality of city and village as well as on commitment to their village. Involving the experiences of parents complement it and role a significant effect on the youth’s mobility and settlement. The case study is based on some pair of interviews: immobilized youth and parents talk about the causes of settlement, desires, commitment, experiences, and about young adults have chance to stay or to migrate. Understanding immobility is about exam the recent and past family experiences present in the family at the parent’s side, the migration culture of the local community and relatives, the separation of experiences, transmissible fears and hopes. These have to be completed by the young adults’ interview where we found the „immobility potential” towards successful, failures, fears, individual and family experiences.

KEYWORDS: immobility, decisions, involuntary immobility, spatial continuity, exclusions, absence of migration, disadvantage



Social representation of rural youth identity


TIn this paper, we investigate the local and self-identity characteristics of socio-cultural groups based on social representation theory and one of its methods (association method). Carried out on a sample of rural youth, the analysis focused on the relationship between the four groups, distinguished by their social representations of identity, with different intensities of meaning and the sociological background variables. In addition to the expected results, the hypothetical explanation for the contradiction in the emotional attachment and mobility variables can be further empirically confirmed.

KEYWORDS: social representation, local identity, youth



Territorial immobility as an opportunity in the life of young people in the village


The purpose of the study is to explore and describe the characteristics, mobility dimensions of immobilized youth living in small settlements of less than 2500 people and seeing opportunities and perspectives in their own villages. We examine separately the views of parents of young people on their children’s mobility, seeking parallels and explanations with their views. The results may serve as a basis for further research and may prepare analyzes focusing on the target group. The research was carried out in the framework of the MTA Excellence Cooperation Program, the Mobility Research Center, and 104 interviews form the basis of the research.

KEYWORDS: immobility, rural area, rural youth, territorial anchorage, reasons for staying



Causes for the Lack of Mobility Among Low-Status, Impoverished Rural Youths


This study explores the lack of mobility and the lack of motivation for mobility among povertystricken youths with low levels of education who live in small villages. I strive to find out why underprivileged young individuals stay in their local village instead of moving to areas with more abundant opportunities and employment. My manuscript also examines their family life and their relationship with their parents, and how those factors could impact their attachment to their village. The main question to analyze is whether young people stay in impoverished rural villages voluntarily or as a result of a lack of choice and a rational decision, or whether they are drifting. My analysis of the data indicates that the lack of mobility among destitute rural youths is not driven by free decisions. My results suggest that these young people belong to a drifting social group, not in charge of their own fate, unaware of the world beyond their immediate surroundings, uninformed, dependent, vulnerable, living in an environment based on mere reciprocity, and thus, in a sense, they are a marginalized social group.

KEYWORDS: poverty, rural youths, lack of mobility, unemployment, lack of social bonds



The impact of the family on the immobility of young people


The study examines the effects of the spatial mobility of the family. The family’s influence in many areas of people’s lives, so the socio-spatial movements. The people in the family will inherit the bulk of their resources, provides for standards, values, skills, behavior patterns of transmission, all have an impact on the social and geographical movement-related efforts and opportunities. A study of rural young people in interviews to examine the family and the relationship between mobility, immobility. The interviewees aged between 19 and 25 have in common is that they have already completed their studies, and their parents live in the same village. An analysis of how these young people are present in the családtörténetében mobility, we are characterized by their family members, relatives, and family resources spatial movement, kötődéseik, what impact does the site less costly.

KEYWORDS: youth in village, family history, mobility, immobility, family obligations, family formation



The vision of young people living in villages


According to the results of the youth research, young people are often pointless and find it difficult to plan for the future. Based on the results of a qualitative study conducted in 2018, this study presents the future plans of a special target group of young people aged 19-25 living in villages who have completed their education. We looked at how young people think about their career paths at school and in the labor market and also their future residence. Based on their ideas on their future, we classified young people into three types (conscious future builder, drifting, accumulator of failures) and, in the analysis, we present each vision indicator based on the types examined. We will also look at how the educational gap between young people and the current situation in life influence future plans.

KEYWORDS: school career path, labor market, locality, young people, school dropout



Municipal Characteristics Increasing and Decreasing Immobility


The study looks for answers to the question: what are the reasons behind staying in small municipalities, especially in highly disadvantaged villages, when moving into cities offers obvious advantages. We have analysed the motives, as well as attractive and repulsive factors based on 104 interviews, in case of 13 municipalities. The interviews convincingly certify that the decision about moving or staying in one place is a complex, multifactorial process. In this, employment opportunities have an undeniably important, however, not completely exclusive role. It is correlated with the demographic characteristics, gender, age, family status, labour market parameters, education level, financial characteristics, individual peculiarities, health status of the individual, as well as with its attitude towards changes, ethnic background, and its contentment concerning the given settlement.

KEYWORDS: Municipal Charecteristics, Increasing and Decreasing Immobility



Why it is sensible to stay, if it is not? –
Insights for processing and analyzing prospects of „immobility research”


The paper takes into account theoretical, speculative considerations to explain why villagers, especially highly educated young villagers, stay (relocate) to their village after completing their studies. Explanations are needed because the usual assumptions are that the village offers poorer job opportunities, lower earnings, poorer conditions of consumption, entertainment and education than cities - it seems useful and rational for young people to move to a city (or abroad) with a richer supply of facilities; if they are geographically and socially mobile. Against this often generalized assumption, there are circumstances in which both the interests of material utility and the prospect for gaining attractive social status make it a reasonable choice to stay in the village, to be ‚immobile’. These circumstances are considered as possible explanations for immobility.

KEYWORDS: mobility-immobility, interest, social status, interpretation/explanation