English

Abstracts - Vol. 11 (2022) No.2

Certain issues of reliability and validity in the case of generalized trust survey measurement in light of the Hungarian data

BODOR ÁKOS – HEGEDÜS MÁRK

Abstracts - Vol. 11 (2022) No.1

Community resilience and social support relationships – An analytical approach and research results based on long-term series analysis of communities affected by the red sludge disaster

ANNA MÁRIA BARTAL – ZOLTÁN KMETTY

Abstracts - Vol. 10 (2021) No.4

Trust, distrust, self-trust

GRÜNHUT, ZOLTÁN

The current paper attempts to embrace trust and distrust as emotions, as well as showing trust or distrust as cognitively justified decisions in one coherent theoretical framework. It links these emotional and action-like domains together by the notion of self-trust which is interpreted as a form of rationale. The argument claims that self-trust of those people who are able to trust others functions in a completely different way in compare to the one of distrusting subjects.

Abstracts - Vol. 10 (2021) No.3

New ways in exporting Society. The potential of donation based digital data collection

KMETTY, ZOLTÁN

More and more digital data is being generated every day, and more and more social science analyses are using Twitter, Instagram, or Facebook data. Many international and national studies have already explored the social science opportunities and dilemmas raised by the phenomenon of ‚big data’ – but the issue of ‚access to data’ has only been touched upon tangentially. And access to data is becoming increasingly difficult. What can we do if market players close the access to their data, and, if we find data available, the Research Ethics Board tells us to stop? The answer is simple: go to the users and ask them for the data. This approach is what the literature calls data donation. This paper will describe the data donation approach in detail, focusing on how researchers can access data through users on the current major Western platforms. The practical feasibility of data donation access will be illustrated based on a domestic pilot study.

KEYWORDS: data collection, data donation, social media, big data, Facebook

 

 

 

The challenges of supervised machine learning in sociological applications

NÉMETH, RENÁTA

The sociological applications of supervised machine learning, already well proven in industrial/ business applications, raise specific questions. The reason for this specificity is that in these applications, the algorithm is tasked with learning complex concepts (e.g. whether a tweet contains hate speech). Supervised learning consists of learning to classify previously annotated (hate speech/non-hate speech) texts by the algorithm, looking for characteristic text patterns. The questions that arise are: how to prepare annotation? How can a hermeneutic challenge such as hate speech recognition be performed by annotators? Are routinely applied, detailed annotation guidelines helpful? The article also discusses how large companies perform coding on crowdsourcing platforms, and describes AI bias, which in this case means that annotators themselves introduce bias into the data. I illustrate these issues with our own research experiences.

KEYWORDS: supervised machine learning, annotation, crowsourcing, AI bias

 

 

 

Hungarian Videoblogger Networks Online

HEGEDŰS DÁNIEL

The web 2.0 phenomenon and social media – without question – not only reshaped our everyday experiences, but they have established an environment for new types of social practices and social actors. The demotization (Turner 2010) effect of such technologies has created entirely new fields where celebrities might emerge from: one of them is videoblogging. Many video bloggers gained great reputation through peculiar micro-celebrity practices (Marwick 2015, Senft 2012), and, as a result, became key figures in distributing ideas, values and knowledge in today’s society. These cognitive patterns are disseminated with a discursive apparatus that is largely based on social media activity, including posts, tweets, self-imagery and the videos themselves, which are tied to a certain logic according to environmental affordances, creating the possibility for fans to interact (share, comment, like, retweet etc.) with artifacts of the celebrity. This mechanism puts the celebrity in a so-called expert system (Giddens 1990) position as they provide adequate schemas of attitude, mentality or behavior. Most importantly, all of these public interactions are accessible for scholars to conduct scientific research. With the help of the SentiOne application this research attempts to reconstruct online networks of video bloggers based on mentions, which either occurred in an artifact (post, video description etc.) or in a fan comment. Apart from the network itself, SentiOne enables us to get insights regarding each individual connection established in it with different types of aggregated data.

KEYWORDS: digital sociology, expert systems, networks, discourse analysis

 

 

 

Empirical analysis of the judgment of unconditional basic income through YouTube comments

OLÁH, ESZTER

One of the world’s largest video-sharing platforms is YouTube, where viewers can comment on the videos and their topics. The aim of this study is to examine the values and opinions about unconditional basic income according to the comment sections of several Youtube’s videos which topic is the previously mentioned UBI which is receiving increasing attention in parallel with today’s economic and social changes. Our research works with a mixed method, data collection, storage, sentiment analysis and the bag of words method which were implemented using IT procedures, while categorization was done through manual coding. The results of the sentiment analysis show that positive arguments appear to a lesser extent in the comments. Positive arguments have value characteristics such as inclusion, the principle of the right to exist, justice and freedom. Among the positive arguments feasibility enjoys the highest support. Negative category values arise more frequently, so the emphasis on the values of injustice, exclusion, unaffordability, and performance-orientation is dominant in the analyzed comments.

KEYWORDS: text mining, computer text analysis, sentiment analysis, unconditional basic income, work-based society

 

 

 

What’s the matter? A text mining analysis of political topics and user engagement on politicians’ Facebook pages during the 2018 Hungarian general election campaign

BENE, MÁRTON

The research investigates the way users interact with leading topics of the 2018 Hungarian general election campaign on candidates’ Facebook pages. It expects that the prominent (immigration, corruption) and campaign-related topics generate more user engagement, while policy topics and mobilization content are less interacted. It also tests the theory of issue ownership in relation with user engagement. These expectations are tested on a dataset that includes all posts (38030 posts) posted by all candidates during the campaign (511 candidates). Topics are identified by text mining methods. The study demonstrates that corruption, development policy and campaign are highly engaged topics, while immigration was more interacted only on opposition politicians’ pages since the followers of pro-government candidates engage less with immigration-related content. The most surprising result is that a reversed issue ownership effect can be detected since politicians are generally less successful with their own topics.

KEYWORDS: social media, issue ownership, immigration, user engagement, text mining

 

 

 

Where to go, net generation? Lifestyle-based segments of the Hungarian youth

SÜTŐ, ANNA

My study attempts to explore the lifestyle-based segments of the Hungarian youth through an innovative methodology based on social media data, incorporating the dimension of digitization into the creation of lifestyle groups. The examination of the segments’ lifestyle attitudes is assisted by a review of the related theoretical milieu approaches, international and Hungarian empirical milieu researches.

KEYWORDS: lifestyle, milieu, youth research, Facebook

 

 

 

Social media communication in the digital medical space

SIMON, SÁRA

In the environment of 21st century technology, the transformation of information acquisition of health care and patients has had an increasing emphasis. Despite the earlier authoritative doctor-patient relationship, a need for an equal, cooperation-based communication has emerged and there are so many digital healthcare projects to achieve this (Koskova 2015). Information acquisition on the internet has allowed patients that based on the increasingly available medical information they acquire information about their condition, become part of patient communities, ask for second opinions, and become committed helpers of their doctors in their disease (Meskó et. al 2017). This can be especially true for patients with rare diseases, where a diagnosis might take even a decade, the patient needs lifelong condition maintenance and treatment, if it is available. While the proportion of patients with rare diseases is low compared to the whole of society, the number of such patients is approximately 30 million in Europe (EURORDIS), which means patients and their relatives need not only a harmonized health care system, but extensive information so that they can live with the rare disease with less difficulty. The aim of our study was to present the options of information acquisition in the social media, focusing on Twitter, via an interdisciplinary and social approach. In this study therefore we carried out a Big Data based social media analysis based on #Asthma and #CysticFibrosis databases of the Symplur corporation. This study results contain the complete online communication of 7 years (2012–2019) regarding these hashtags. The analysis has few levels including semantic research, stakeholder and hashtag review, engagement, and the whole tweet activity exploration.

KEYWORDS: digital healthcare, e-patients, Big Data, cystic fibrosis, asthma

 

 

 

Classification of depression-related online forums using Natural Language Processing

MÁTÉ, FANNI

The study of the phenomenon of depression is not new in sociology, but since the depression is becoming a wider social problem, it is still a relevant issue today. In addition to the biomedical and psychological aspects of depression, the sociological perspective is becoming more noteworthy in the discourse about the causes of depression. In the research of the discourse on depression, the online texts offer many new possibilities, as the forum’s anonymity and accessability make the online seeking for help popular. In this research, natural language processing (logistic regression) was applied to find patterns in the definition of depression in lay discourses. These methods make it possible to analyze a large amount of text – which would have been difficult to process with human resources. During the analysis, 67 857 posts of English-speaking online forums were categorized along the categories of the scientific discourse about depression. This study presents the first results, which shows logistic regression classifier performs like the annotators. . Although the research has analyzed English-speaking forums, my findings may be useful to anyone observing abstract sociological concepts in online texts written by users.

KEYWORDS: depression, Natural Language Processing mental health, online forums

 

 

Abstracts - Vol. 10 (2021) No.2

Some demographic characteristics of long-term commuting in Hungary

BALCSÓK, ISTVÁN

The study aims to show the most important demographic characteristics of long-term commuting workers and the emerging territorial disparities using the latest available statistics. The main motivation for commuting, including long commuting, is still to get the job they deem appropriate, but about a quarter of a million people take on much greater burdens than average and only travel home weekly or less frequently in Hungary. Most of them make this decision by force, as there are no job opportunities in their place of residence, but the income they provide is very important for their families. Long-term commuters mostly do seasonal work (construction, catering, etc.) and work in physical jobs. Unsurprisingly, men are more likely to take on the life form with increased physical and psychological strain, but not only the heads of the family in their forties, but also young people in their 20s who are not yet independent of their families are represented in large numbers. Long commuting is characterised by marked territorial inequalities, and those affected mainly start from villages, despite the fact that the high level of public employment in the most disadvantaged areas is affecting the direction of the stay of the workforce.

KEYWORDS: long-term commuting, territorial inequalities, demographic characteristics

 

 

 

„He only knows about everything, but does not experience anything!” – deciding on weekly commuting in terms of educational qualifications

KERÜLŐ, JUDIT

This paper presents the group of domestic commuters who can only go home and meet their families – in the best case – once a week. It is based on a survey conducted in 2019 in which 24 commuters together with their family members at home were interviewed about why they had decided on working far away from home. Looking for similar and different characteristic features, we have analyzed the interviews in terms of the respondents’ educational qualifications. Our results prove undoubtedly that the lower qualifications the respondents have, the fewer job options they will have; moreover, they are also in vulnerable position concerning getting accommodation, spending free time or finding suitable means of transport to go home.

KEYWORDS: domestic commuter, weekly commuting, professional qualification

 

 

 

„We were born here, we grew up here, our relatives and our children are here… everything are in our village”. Weekly commuting in a village of Tiszahát

MOLNÁR, ÉVA

The study present the weekly commuting in a small village of 1600 resident in Tiszahát. The economic situation of the settlement, employment and income opportunities are lower than national average, which also has an extremely strong impact on the livability of the village. The local primary labor market can employ few workers, other employees can work in public employment or they can work as a seasonal worker in agriculture buti it does not provide an income that can be calculated all year. There are few opportunities in the region, so they can not work in the nearby settlements. Many locals have to go to remote settlement for work. We prepared interviews to examine: how weekly commuting became popular in the village and how it affected local families and the local community.

KEYWORDS: commuting, weekly commuting, village, employment, local community

 

 

 

Two sides of one coin. Social network of commuter and their families

HUSZTI, ÉVA

People around a person have important roles of the social integration and form of quality of life. Changes in the life circumstances like getting a job or changes of the workplaces have significant effect to egocentric social network. In a new workplace usually shape new relationships. Then again, it is also possible that besides increasing of number of new contacts, there will be those, which are drop out from the personal network. Paper shows the rearrange of the personal social network of people who works as a commuter and theirs partnerships. Commuter is a person who works far from his/her home and he/she goes home weekly or rarely. This topic was examined making interviews in 2019 (N=24). On the one hand, these interviews revealed a wide and confidant family and kin networks. On the other hand, it seems that, due to the workplaces and the common activities at the workplaces and other places (accommodation, shopping etc.), commuter can make new, long-term and confidant friendships which complete his/her family relationships and make their social capital stronger.

KEYWORDS: social relationships, commuter, friendships, work related contacts, social capital

 

 

 

Alone together? Shared space, time, and solidarity in commuter relationships

KOLOZSVÁRI, ORSOLYA

Long-distance relationships have always existed, however, as a result of globalization, modern communication technology, as well as widespread travel opportunities, their number has increased. This study focuses on commuter relationships, that is, those couples that only see each other during the weekend or in every few weeks due to working far from their home. 24 interviews were conducted with commuter couples in small towns and villages. A key research question involved satisfaction levels among interviewees. Dissatisfaction with their relationship was relatively rare, except some women complained about increased household tasks. Daily communication and modern communication technology had an immense role in boosting satisfaction levels. Technology has also contributed to the creation of shared space and time among commuter couples. Regular communication, special dates, and shared plans for the future also raised relationship solidarity. To survive time apart and make time spent together more special timework was used, which was done together for the purpose of influencing the subconscious and subjective sense of time.

KEYWORDS: commuter relationships, long-distance relationships, commuting, relationship solidarity, time and space

 

 

 

The place and role of children in long commuting families – parental decisions and upbringing

NEMES-ZÁMBÓ, GABRIELLA

The study examines families in which one or both partners are commuting for longer periods (hetelés). Our research questions focus on those families who are raising children. As a result, their family life is largely determined by the specific operation based on the changing dynamics of physical, emotional proximity and distance. The analysis which processes qualitative results focuses on children and reveals the changes that have taken place in the family as a result of long term commuting. These include attachment in the family, the care and upbringing of children, and the place and role of the child in the family. In the lives of the families studied, we encountered different parental attitudes and parent-child relationships.

KEYWORDS: children in the family, long commuting families, bringing up children, family decisions, family roles

 

 

 

„Ratio Generationis” – Aspects for responsible generational research

CSUTORÁS, GÁBOR ÁKOS

Huge amount of literature has been published in recent years on topic of generation research but of varying quality. There is a significant interest in the topic, although an increasing amount of contradictory and methodologically questionable results have come to light. People develop prejudices and beliefs based on popular media, which could be counterbalanced by scientific works, but there is a noticable amount of thorough criticism against them. It is still a question, whether generation is the proper response to certain phenomena or we have just „generated” it and most charachteristics are rather related to age or life span? Cautious research is complicated and lengthy, therefore many either choose to perform superficial research or to go so in-depth that does not allow answering problems and return to just individual differences. Some conclude by refusing the generational approach altogether. In these circumstances a kind of „responsible” generational research is to be suggested, which turns from dead ends to the scientific way and finally tries to find „ration in generations” keeping in mind all the criticism of the approach. I summerize cosiderations in my work to find this right direction.

KEYWORDS: generation, generation research, critics, age, life span

 

 

 

„Women Question” in the Political Parties’ Discourse in Post-Revolution Tunisia (2011–2014)

NAWEL GHALI

For more than fifty years, the Tunisian political system has been considered as a so-called secular system that had provided women with many rights in education, healthcare and in economic and political sectors, besides that woman friendly family laws reforms After the overthrown of Ben Ali regime on 14th of January 2011, the Tunisian society witnessed an economic, social and political significant transformation. A new Islamic-secular discourse have been raised debates both in public and private sphere, women’s rights have been one of the incendiary topics of these debates. Therefore, with the participation of the Islamists in political life, the country has faced a new political dynamic which made the pollical scene complex and ambiguous. In this context, discourse analysis is a very important and crucial to be used as a method to approach to the research main question. Some leaders’ speeches, events which took place during the democratic transition are examined and analyzed in order to serve the research’s analytic interest through the relevant materials.

KEYWORDS: discourse analysis, women representation in political discourse, post-revolution Tunisia

 

 

 

Seven years with Orion

FRIESZ-KOVÁCS, KAMILLA

The collection managed by the Voices of the 20th Century Archive and Research Group offers unique opportunities for social researchers. Due to the nature of the march of time, a seemingly endless series of one-time, unrepeatable and irreclaimable moments awaits the masses of researchers so that they take the old research with a new approach and a fresh perspective.
The collection does not only provide a chance to quote and refer to the research materials that have remained from the 20th century. We can plan to re-analyze or even to continue or repeat them. Researchers maneuvering through the restrictions of state socialism have left us a legacy that deserves special attention. I believe that these researchers deserve attention looking back even from the 21st century, and that their research should form the basis of today’s research. As a result of the change of regime, social environment and everyday life have changed significantly. Countless aspects of the transformation affecting the whole of people’s lifestyle have remained unexplored to this day, although studying and processing them would be urgently needed.
The Orion research, commissioned by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and led by Judit H. Sas, is one of the treasures of the archive which offers sources for researchers dedicated to the field of the life of workers. In my study, I give an account of my most important personal practical experiences, from the sorting and digitization of original source materials written by typewriter to the partial repetition of research.

KEYWORDS: Orion Company, The research of the Orion Electric Company, Judit H. Sas

 

Abstracts - Vol. 10 (2021) No.1

Investigation of working conditions and risk factors for burnout of social and pedagogical professionals

ÁGNES GYŐRI – ÉVA PERPÉK

The study scrutinizes the relationship between professional working conditions and burnout among Hungarian social and pedagogical professionals. Despite the fact that burnout and occupational well-being have been extensively researched abroad among professional helpers – primarily health care workers –, no quantitative survey has been conducted in Hungary so farin the target group we examined. Another added value of our study is that, besides work and organizational factors revealed by previous burnout studies, it points to the role of client- and fieldwork-related difficulties in the prevalence of burnout symptoms. In our exploratory, crosssectional survey, 261 social and pedagogical specialists participated from Baranya County. Our results suggest that job and task matching problems, and difficulties related to the fieldwork and clients lead to emotional exhaustion of professionals and decreased work efficiency. Deficiencies related to work motivation cause loss of efficiency as well. The results also indicate that out of the three occupational groups involved in the research, professionals working in the field of child protection are most at risk for emotional exhaustion, and the symptom of depersonalization is most relevant to child protection and family and child welfare workers. In addition, we have shown that longer professional experience can be considered a protective factor in burnout symptoms. Our results can make an important contribution to the establishment of individual and organizational level training, support, development, monitoring and evaluation programs and/or policy-level guidelines and interventions that can improve the working conditions of professionals and reduce their risk of emotional, mental and physical strain.

KEYWORDS: social professionals, working conditions, risk factors for burnout

 

 

 

Trojan horse and fig leaf: the role of populism in the global crisis of democracy and the postmodern autocracies

ISTVÁN BENEDEK

It is my contention that populism could be an appropriate framework to understand and link the phenomena of global crisis of democracy and spread of postmodern autocracies. In order to substantiate this claim with the method of literature review, I have examined first the characteristics of these phenomena and then I have focused the nature of relationship between them, in particular with regard to the complex system of stability of new types of autocracies, in which, I think, populism playing a key role. Populism, understood it as an autocratic interpretation of democracy and representation, could be a particularly dangerous Trojan horse for democracy. Above all, because of its idea of a single, homogeneous and authentic people that can be genuinely represented only by populists, and because of this representative claim is a moralized form of antipluralism. In addition, populism is also an important feature of postmodern autocracies, especially of electoral autocracy. By means of populism, it is possible for these regimes to camouflage and even legitimise the autocratic trends and exercise of power, as well as the creation an uneven playing field for political contestation behind their formally multi-party elections and democratic façade. As a radical turn towards traditional forms of autocracies would be too expensive, postmodern autocrats need manipulated multi-party elections and other plebiscite techniques that could serve as quasi-democratic legitimation, as well as populism that could transform political contestation to a life-and-death struggle and, provides other important cognitive functions. Therefore, populist autocracy, as a paradigmatic type of postmodern autocracies, will remain with us for a long time, giving more and more tasks to researchers involved in them.

KEYWORDS: democracy, autocracy, populism, representation, legitimacy

 

 

 

Processes of change in the Hungarian and Ukrainian Community in Izsnyéte, Transcarpathia

ROLAND DOSZPOLY

I started my research in Izsnyéte, Transcarpathia, in 2012 with an anthropological research group. Initially, we were curious about the coexistence mechanisms of the local settlement, the cultural peculiarities of the ethnic groups living there, but due to the war situation, we had to stop our empirical research sooner before 2015. In 2017, as a doctoral student, I continued my empirical research in Izsnyéte, where Hungarians represent an absolute majority against the state-forming Ukrainian ethnic group. The basic research concept was to choose a local settlement close to the border where two or three different ethnicities have lived together for decades. In my study, I examine the process of ethnicity production and the processes of image and change of the living ethnicities of the settlement and their applicability to each other in comparison with the data of previous research, reflecting on the changes, mainly in the light of assimilation. Already the results of the 2012 research showed spatial isolation, in many cases dissimilation was experienced among coexisting ethnicities, but with many other factors and aspects several years later, it caused diverse processes.

KEYWORDS: assimilation, ethnicity, Transcarpathia, anthropology, dissimilation, change

 

 

Social contacts and spending of leisure time of the elderly

ANITA R. FEDOR – SÁNDOR UNGVÁRI – VALÉRIA MARKOS

The phenomenon of the aging of societies is now well-known, demonstrating its demographic, economic and social impact in many countries around the world. The increase in average life expectancy at birth and the low number of children have naturally triggered the emergence of declining, aging societies. All this has led to a number of tasks for policy makers, domestic and international organizations, primarily to promote active, healthy aging. This article describes some of the results of an empirical study of 167 people conducted jointly with St. Luke’s Greek Catholic Charity in the winter of 2019 in order to assess the situation and needs of the elderly. This article presents the results of our study, which focuses on community activities, leisure, and social relationships. During our analytical work, we found that those living in residential care homes are more open to community-based activities to maintain physical and mental activity.

KEYWORDS: aging society, needs assessment, social relations, community activities, leisure, mental health

 

 

Factor of wage satisfaction in the light of a satisfaction survey

ANITA RÁCZ

Present study reports about the survey results of an empirical research reflecting the wage satisfaction level of employees. The part of the empirical research done in 4 different administration bodies in 2019 with the help of an online questionnaire survey is presented, in which results are summarized concerning responses to competitiveness of the wage system, relation of wage and performance, and the satisfaction with wage and further allowances.

KEYWORDS: civil service, civil servant, payment system, competitiveness, satisfaction, Kit.

 

 

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