Abstracts - Vol. 8 (2019) No.3

Rural youths and their lack of mobility


International research on the lack of mobility and its causes among people in rural areas primarily focuses on motivations for emigration and consequences of immigration. In the first half of our study we summarize the findings of the research described above. We explain the relationship between poverty and lack of mobility, review the link between agriculture and local mobility, predominantly through the functions of rural businesses. We explore the return migration of youths, especially those who move back to their village after a long period of education and/or job search. We revisit structural theories that connect migration to different types of capital and shed light on the impact of changing perceptions on rural life. We use longitudinal quantitative studies and their statistics to analyze the characteristics of the lack of mobility among Hungarian rural youths and emigration patterns between 2010-2017. The second half of our manuscript delineates the results of studies done by the Mobility Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The pertinent articles and case studies examine the role of social bonds in the lack of mobility, types of employment among rural youths, and how those influence their attachment to their village. Mobility case studies among the youths are also analyzed, along with the social representation of their identity, categories of success, the effects of poverty, their family bonds, perspectives for the future, as well as the consequences of the social and regional characteristics of their villages.

KEYWORDS: migration, lack of mobility, rural youths, regional inequalities



Advantages of the home ground
The role of the social contacts in the immobile status of the rural youth


The paper deals with the effects of the structure and the working of the egocentric network to the immobile status of rural youth. The research was made in 2018 among 19-25-year-old youth living in villages with not more than 2500 inhabitants. More, than a hundred (104) structured interview was made: 53 youth and 51 parents. Firstly, the study shows the network size and composition of the examined population, then the influence of the revealed functions of the egocentric network of the youth to their immobility. Based on the data the egocentric network of the youth mainly consist of strong ties: close kin and other relatives. From the weak ties the most frequent contacts belong to the education institutions as primary or grammar school, university. The local schools have a great role in the forming of the friendships. The local working place contacts, neighbours and acquaintanceships are not general actors of the egocentric networks of the youth.

KEYWORDS: egocentric social network, immobile status, rural youth, strong ties, weak ties.



Where do young villagers work?

Types of social bonds and occupational characters of young generations living in small villages


One of the defining elements of local identity is the opportunity to work and the chance ofearning money. These factors are especially important in small villages within low-populated rural areas, where due to changes in the production structure and land ownership job opportunities become less and less. In the absence of livelihood opportunities and adequate income for young people living in the countryside, the migration process is intensifying, the villages are aging and become more and more depopulated. A smaller part of young villagers however remain in the settlement, with new marginalized settlers from urban areas, who appear alongside them.
Our case study, based on 104 interviews in 12 settlements, seeks to find whether young people – aged 19-25 – look at village life as a constraint or an opportunity. The central question is whether they think that this marginal status, with an assumingly cheap village life, is the only choice for them, or they are convinced that they are staying in small villages due to their conscious choice in favour of a rural lifestyle.
Focusing on employment strategies, the aim of this paper is to look at the dimensions of local attachment of the target group, and to show the various labour market characteristics of the target groupthat develops within the given framework.

KEYWORDS: local attachment, village youth, labour market status, employees characters



Here you can or should stay? Narratives of mobility


In this case study that focuses on mobilities’ narratives, we exam the experiences that works against mobility. Thus we are curious how to effect individual experiences (studies, employees), possibly in a larger city or abroad, small mobilities (vacation, office work in a city), how to effect on the duality of city and village as well as on commitment to their village. Involving the experiences of parents complement it and role a significant effect on the youth’s mobility and settlement. The case study is based on some pair of interviews: immobilized youth and parents talk about the causes of settlement, desires, commitment, experiences, and about young adults have chance to stay or to migrate. Understanding immobility is about exam the recent and past family experiences present in the family at the parent’s side, the migration culture of the local community and relatives, the separation of experiences, transmissible fears and hopes. These have to be completed by the young adults’ interview where we found the „immobility potential” towards successful, failures, fears, individual and family experiences.

KEYWORDS: immobility, decisions, involuntary immobility, spatial continuity, exclusions, absence of migration, disadvantage



Social representation of rural youth identity


TIn this paper, we investigate the local and self-identity characteristics of socio-cultural groups based on social representation theory and one of its methods (association method). Carried out on a sample of rural youth, the analysis focused on the relationship between the four groups, distinguished by their social representations of identity, with different intensities of meaning and the sociological background variables. In addition to the expected results, the hypothetical explanation for the contradiction in the emotional attachment and mobility variables can be further empirically confirmed.

KEYWORDS: social representation, local identity, youth



Territorial immobility as an opportunity in the life of young people in the village


The purpose of the study is to explore and describe the characteristics, mobility dimensions of immobilized youth living in small settlements of less than 2500 people and seeing opportunities and perspectives in their own villages. We examine separately the views of parents of young people on their children’s mobility, seeking parallels and explanations with their views. The results may serve as a basis for further research and may prepare analyzes focusing on the target group. The research was carried out in the framework of the MTA Excellence Cooperation Program, the Mobility Research Center, and 104 interviews form the basis of the research.

KEYWORDS: immobility, rural area, rural youth, territorial anchorage, reasons for staying



Causes for the Lack of Mobility Among Low-Status, Impoverished Rural Youths


This study explores the lack of mobility and the lack of motivation for mobility among povertystricken youths with low levels of education who live in small villages. I strive to find out why underprivileged young individuals stay in their local village instead of moving to areas with more abundant opportunities and employment. My manuscript also examines their family life and their relationship with their parents, and how those factors could impact their attachment to their village. The main question to analyze is whether young people stay in impoverished rural villages voluntarily or as a result of a lack of choice and a rational decision, or whether they are drifting. My analysis of the data indicates that the lack of mobility among destitute rural youths is not driven by free decisions. My results suggest that these young people belong to a drifting social group, not in charge of their own fate, unaware of the world beyond their immediate surroundings, uninformed, dependent, vulnerable, living in an environment based on mere reciprocity, and thus, in a sense, they are a marginalized social group.

KEYWORDS: poverty, rural youths, lack of mobility, unemployment, lack of social bonds



The impact of the family on the immobility of young people


The study examines the effects of the spatial mobility of the family. The family’s influence in many areas of people’s lives, so the socio-spatial movements. The people in the family will inherit the bulk of their resources, provides for standards, values, skills, behavior patterns of transmission, all have an impact on the social and geographical movement-related efforts and opportunities. A study of rural young people in interviews to examine the family and the relationship between mobility, immobility. The interviewees aged between 19 and 25 have in common is that they have already completed their studies, and their parents live in the same village. An analysis of how these young people are present in the családtörténetében mobility, we are characterized by their family members, relatives, and family resources spatial movement, kötődéseik, what impact does the site less costly.

KEYWORDS: youth in village, family history, mobility, immobility, family obligations, family formation



The vision of young people living in villages


According to the results of the youth research, young people are often pointless and find it difficult to plan for the future. Based on the results of a qualitative study conducted in 2018, this study presents the future plans of a special target group of young people aged 19-25 living in villages who have completed their education. We looked at how young people think about their career paths at school and in the labor market and also their future residence. Based on their ideas on their future, we classified young people into three types (conscious future builder, drifting, accumulator of failures) and, in the analysis, we present each vision indicator based on the types examined. We will also look at how the educational gap between young people and the current situation in life influence future plans.

KEYWORDS: school career path, labor market, locality, young people, school dropout



Municipal Characteristics Increasing and Decreasing Immobility


The study looks for answers to the question: what are the reasons behind staying in small municipalities, especially in highly disadvantaged villages, when moving into cities offers obvious advantages. We have analysed the motives, as well as attractive and repulsive factors based on 104 interviews, in case of 13 municipalities. The interviews convincingly certify that the decision about moving or staying in one place is a complex, multifactorial process. In this, employment opportunities have an undeniably important, however, not completely exclusive role. It is correlated with the demographic characteristics, gender, age, family status, labour market parameters, education level, financial characteristics, individual peculiarities, health status of the individual, as well as with its attitude towards changes, ethnic background, and its contentment concerning the given settlement.

KEYWORDS: Municipal Charecteristics, Increasing and Decreasing Immobility



Why it is sensible to stay, if it is not? –
Insights for processing and analyzing prospects of „immobility research”


The paper takes into account theoretical, speculative considerations to explain why villagers, especially highly educated young villagers, stay (relocate) to their village after completing their studies. Explanations are needed because the usual assumptions are that the village offers poorer job opportunities, lower earnings, poorer conditions of consumption, entertainment and education than cities - it seems useful and rational for young people to move to a city (or abroad) with a richer supply of facilities; if they are geographically and socially mobile. Against this often generalized assumption, there are circumstances in which both the interests of material utility and the prospect for gaining attractive social status make it a reasonable choice to stay in the village, to be ‚immobile’. These circumstances are considered as possible explanations for immobility.

KEYWORDS: mobility-immobility, interest, social status, interpretation/explanation