Abstracts - Vol. 7 (2018) No. 4

Some questions about labour shortages in Central Hungary – based on empirical research


Demand for human resources has changed very strongly over the past decade and the demand and supply sides of the labour market have shifted. While there was a global over-supply of labour by the first decade of the new millennium, the job market today is characterized by labour shortages. In Central and Eastern European countries, unfavourable economic and social circumstances in the 1990s have had an impact on the current labour market changes and play a decisive role in labour shortages. After the fall of communism, the resulting high unemployment in these countries led to more talented workers moving towards Western European countries in the hope of a better quality of life (Bilsen – Konings 1998, Jeong et al. 2008). One of today’s key issues in former socialist countries now Member States of the European Union is the dramatically increased number of labour shortages, which have been influenced by various factors, including post-transition migration, unfavourable demographic factors, the economic crisis beginning in 2008, and wage differences within the European Union (Brixiova et al. 2009). According to OECD data, nearly 7 million people have left the labour markets in the Visegrád countries. The present study focuses on the causes of labour shortages and the analysis of labour retention opportunities at both the corporate and government levels. The results of our analysis show that reconciliation and central governmental measures are also needed to address the shortage of professionals, both from corporate and the government sides.

KEYWORDS: HR, labour shortage, governmental actions, missing job, turnover




Research on ambition conducted with economics students at a rural university using the 9M Motivational Model


Being motivated is a key factor for every employee. On the one hand, companies are always working on the most efficient motivational system to ensure employees continue to perform high quality work. On the other hand, young workers entered the market which setup new obstacles for HRM. The 9M motivational model sums up all the aspects of reasons to be motivated for an employee. It gives companies a motivation-mix, which can be used to create an inspiring framework for employees in their everyday jobs. The aim of this research is to evaluate the expectations of economic students concerning their ideal first or next workplaces. The questionnaire was filled in by 121 students. The socio-demographic aspects were gender, place of residence and levels between university studies. The database was evaluated using non-parametric procedures and principal component analysis. The results show that female respondents are more likely to favour clear instructions, feedback and interpersonal relations. Respondents with a higher degree are more likely to want to be one with the company’s vision and mission than respondents during their bachelor studies. The same applies to the lever of culture and shared values. The result of the principal component analysis showed no similarity to the original model. The 9 levels of work were grouped into three different divisions than those seen in the original format.

KEYWORDS: motivation, 9M model, students, employees, organisational culture




An analysis of the career planning competencies of students at the University of Debrecen


Planning a career cannot be started soon enough. The determination of following a career path preceded by significant decisions and aims. Several pieces of research are dedicated to the affiliation of young adults self-awareness and career paths in terms of seeking work. University students rarely have the appropriate amount of self-knowledge. Nowadays in the labour market beside the qualification, competencies are growing in importance. It is crucial to have certain communication, integration and strategic skills to successfully find a quality job. The University of Debrecen provides a wide variety of available services regarding individual job search support or consultation and the commitment of a career path. The surveyed university students valued the importance of these services and competencies related to improving the finding of a job after graduation. The conformity between the knowledge of the available services and the required and existing skills could be helpful in the labour market after getting the university degree. The questionnaire was filled out by students from the University of Debrecen and valued by the IBM SPSS Statistics programme.

KEYWORDS: student, career, career planning, competency, labour market




Equal opportunities at work? Equal opportunities and legal protection in the labour market

Csilla Suhajda

The study examines the realization and the development of legal protection of equal opportunities in the labour market. The purpose of the research is to identify the most common problems related to the violation of equal opportunities during the period since the Equal Treatment Authority began its work. The study explores whether types of discrimination can be identified, which are the most prominent and which are the most disadvantaged characteristics of the labour market in Hungary today. The correlations discovered demonstrate that although regulation of the legal background has greatly facilitated the awareness of individuals in this field, there is a need to create further forums of discussion to achieve measurable results.

KEYWORDS: labour market, equal opportunities, employment, discrimination, property




Transition from higher education to the IT sector in Cluj-Napoca


The present paper focuses on those factors that affect transition from higher education to the IT sector in Cluj-Napoca, in cases of entrants with informatics, automatization and computer technology degree. The results show that transition to the IT market in Cluj-Napoca is primarily influenced by the dependency of the local IT market on western IT markets with more central positions, followed by the competition for workforce. The first factor: dependency is due to skill shortages on the labour market in Cluj-Napoca. Launching new trainings with the involvement of other departments at universities, such as design, business, sales, marketing or business informatics can reduce dependency according to the representatives of the local institutions of higher education. Transition from higher education to the IT sector for entrants in Cluj-Napoca is smooth, due to the strong competition for workforce (second factor). Entrants select their potential workplace based on the reputation of a workplace, position/projects, team and remuneration. Labour shortage is present both in the IT sector and in higher education. A long-term solution for reducing labour shortage in both sectors could be provided by creating attractive career paths in the academy which would require stronger cooperation between companies, state and higher education institutions, according to the representatives of the institutions of higher education.

KEYWORDS: IT sector, employment, transition, higher education, entrants




Czech Interwar Photography between Art, Society and Politics


Interwar Czech photography in the cultural spectre from the viewpoint of media and technology is related with penetration to various areas without intentionally directed nature of genres or styles. Viewed in a context with the phenomena of new mass media, industrialization, leisure time and general cultural and sociological relations in the spatio-temporal compression of modernity, photography plays a major role in forming modern culture in the 1920’s and 1930’s, in the “golden era of photography”. I have focused on the tendencies of photographic expression, influence and thinking after World War I. I considered it is important to point to reversed flow of ideas, i.e. from other fields of human activity towards photography, when this concerns tools where the development of new photographic was projected back to artistic and general social levels.

Keywords : Czech photography, art, society, politics, 1920s and 1930s




Drawn Commuters – Caricature as a visual historical resource


Despite of the fact that during the time of state socialism commuters meant a continuously growing social group both in proportion and in size, writing about their social history has been pushed into the background so far. The author’s aim is to fill this gap by trying to discover the most of the available sources of different genres. The present study shows part of this larger volume work, it shows what it can add to our knowledge about a social group through traditional sources if we include caricatures of a given social group as visual historical sources in the analysis. In this paper, the author analyses sixteen caricatures of commuters, published in “Ludas Matyi,” comparing written and audio visual sources. In the study, she tries, among other things, to find out if there was a definite commuter picture of “Ludas Matyi”, and if so, to what extent did this commuter’s image differ from that of other products in the press? To what extent did the satirical portrayal of commuters refer to long-distance commuters and to what extent to daily commuters? Were the real anomalies of commuting in the era reflected in Ludas Matyi? The analysis discusses the economic and social processes that characterize the time of publishing the caricatures, and denominates the external and internal characteristics and emotions commuters were endowed with.The aim of the author is to present the method of caricature analysis, which emphasizes the comparability of resources.

KEYWORDS: commuters, state socialism, emotions, caricatures, visual historical resource




Revisiting enterprise politics in the interwar Hungary: The case of The Rimamurány–Salgótarján Iron Works Co.


The Rimamurány-Salgótarján Iron Works Co. in Salgótarján started to run up from 1871. The people who lived in the workers’ colony of the Steelworks in Salgótarján differentiated themselves from the rest of the local residents not only spatially but also in their appearance, as a result of their higher standard of living. At the begining of the 20th century the major streets of the colony (Acélgyári Street) had macadam or stoned surface and were lit with public street lightning. The duty of the socalled Dwelling Master was to guarantee neat, clean, tidy streets within the colony. Steelworkers had more opportunity to visit the shops and barbershop than those men who lived within the downtown. This difference was partly due to their higher income and partly due to the fact that the services of the comany’s shop and the barber at the colony were much cheaper than those of other local barbers since it was ordered so by factory management. Workers’ houses were up to the standards of the time, they did not pay rent or just a very low price and workers had a possibility to build their own garden houses on the land of the company. All this fundamentally changed in the second half of the 1940s owing to post-war lack of raw material and Socialist ’modernization’ and uniformization. The period of communist dictatorship after World War II, nationalization of the works and Socialist ’modernization’ created trauma at the colony.

KEYWORDS: labour history, interwar Hungary, steel works, iron works, lifestile, workers’ colony, workers’ dynasties




“to work only precisely, nicely...”
The brigade logs, as sources of the research of the working class of the Hungarian large-scale industry in the second half of 20th century


Brigade logs have got rather little attention in the economic- and social history researches of the decades since the regime change. However, by appropriate source critique and by joint use of other type of sources we can gain very useful information from them. And we could say, that neither they had been used as quasi-sources for the history of the socialist enterprises in the course of pre-1989 researches in the field of the history of factories and enterprises. The obvious reason for this was that during the active period of the socialist brigades the logs in better cases were being administered in a systematic way, and provided with different notes. In the present study I try to explore the possibilities for interpretation and analysis of this type of source, and then I attempt to discuss – through the analysis of the examples of two enterprises of the vehicle industry – the possible ways of their use. I think that the brigade logs, alike as the registers, which could provide aid for the elaboration of the social history of the Hungarian large scale industry, may contribute to the better understanding of the movement, to the research of working-class life, and to the reconstruction of roles within the different social groups.

KEYWORDS: brigade logs, Hungarian large-scale industrial workers, emulation, socialist collective, social relationships, community life, local societies, state socialism, competition movement




The Acceleration of Political Decision-making


The detailed description exceeds the scope of this paper, but our aim is to trace a peculiar problem of decision-making theory that can be allocated at the intersection of political theory, sociology and philosophy. What we are trying to do is to emphasize the importance of the relationship between political decision-makingand the timespan available for it. In order to do that, first we make distinctions between some basic concepts that play central rolein the descriptive and normative approach of the issues under review. Second, this paper is not about detailed elaboration of solutions, it does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem. Our aim is therefore to shape problem sensitivity. In the first part we present some terminological basic lines in order to outline the conceptual aspect of the problem, and to develop assumptions that underly our decision-making analysis. Next, we approach the problem of decision-making based on some theses of contemporary „time-sociology”(time as sociology’s basic concept), and – in relation to that – we point at some specific shortfalls of democracy. Finally, based on a profound historical and theoretical analysis, we show howsome basic considerations of the Ritter-school of the early years of the Federal Republic of Germany make possible for us to reconsider the complex question elaborated above.

KEYWORDS: decision, decision-making situation, decision-making process, acceleration, democratic theory, Ritter-school.




Perception of time and political science II . Political science paradigms in the post regime change Hungary


In the second part of his two piecees say the author examines the perception of time in Hungarian political science after the change of regime. In his first article, the author stated that for the past 60 years Western political science was characterised by a sort of „rotation” concerning the perception of time, that is, at times the representatives of the discipline favored history over the present, while at other times the present over history. In the case of the Hungarian example examined in this essay, we can not talk of rotation: the past 30 years has constantly favored a present-centricperspective, which embodies the transitology paradigm and its derivatives. The studys hows through the example of Fidesz that mainstream political science is almost exclusively interested in the changes of Fidesz from this perspective, as a result it has very little to say about the deeper causes of the transformations of Fidesz (and Hungarian democracy) during this period of time which are also related to historical circumstances. The author holds himself to be a representative of the historical perspective and urges there-examination of the time perspective of the past quarter of a century through this perspective.

KEYWORDS: Transitology, Consolidology, Hungarianpoltiical Science, Transformation of partysystem, Paradigms




Sacred-Conventional Roots of Female Roles, or the oppositional women’s and the glass ceiling


The presentation attempts to discover the sacred roots of traditional female and maternal roles embedded in the established, accepted, specified regulations and orders of parenting, as opposed to women’s career opportunities and the glass ceiling barrier to advancement present in modernity. In terms of value, in the area of men’s roles, female and parenting issues get separated into in-house / within family / out-of-home worlds; domination of the male world remains outside and creed related, while at home there is essentially a „female domination” in the conventional sense of the word. Everything in the statutory and halachic provisions for girls’ education serves to preserve mental-moral purity in order to protect the safety of the nuclear family; the relations within the kinship alliance balanced; the process of social integration unobstructed. At the same time, these rules are expanding within the scope of alternative, reform and postmodern Judaism; the age of modernity is the legitimacy of social marginalization, post-holocaust, lifestyle change, strongly diverging efforts in mobility activity (age group, network of relationships, denominational life, value system), and secularization often takes place in the same social space, the legitimacy of viewpoints that take into account the new criteria of modernity against rigid Torah-tracking.

KEYWORDS: sacred tradition or modernization, women success-chances, mobility, self-searching, jewish women roles