Gender Differences in Work Attitudes and Work Experience in a Student Sample

Hajnalka Fényes

Status inconsistency can be found between women's education level and labor market position. Concerning participation rates in formal education the advantage of women can be observed as early as the 1980s (Forray 1986), whereas even recently women in the labor market seem to be in a disadvantages position compared to men. However women's advantage cannot be said to be complete even in the education system. Boys' and girls' schools go in different directions; horizontal segregation is taking place according to gender. A “neosegregation” of boys' and girls' schools is gaining ground as coeducation is driven back, which may put the girls in a disadvantaged position. “In the vertical structure of the education system girls have gained advantage over the boys, but in the horizontal structure the traditional choices have proved to be overwhelming.” (Forray, Hegedűs 1987: 234). In the grammar schools of minor settlements and in the outskirts of cities girls are in majority, whereas in schools of higher prestige in cities the gender rates seem to be balanced. Also in vocational secondary schools segregation by traditional male and female professions is prevalent (Forray 1986). Besides, segregation by gender can also be found in higher education (see Fényes 2009b).

The sociological context of poverty

Ibolya Czibere

„Poverty and exclusion can be not on any account
tolerated in a well-off continent like Europe.”

A sociological approach to poverty: opposing paradigms

The sociological research on poverty, the theoretical and empirical knowledge accumulated contributes to identifying and interpreting poverty phenomena and - as a server of social policy – it takes an active role in actions implemented for the moderation of destitution, also in the elaboration, introduction of diverse social, social policy projects, and impact studies. In these fields the science of sociology mostly exploits functionalist and conflict-paradigms. Hereunder, the focus falls on these paradigms, the relevant theory of „poverty culture” by Lewis, the category of underclass, the mechanisms of social seclusion and the model of life cycle are also mentioned.  

Inside borders

Janos Mazsu

Jewish settlement in banned cities: Jewish immigration in Debrecen (Hungary) in the periods between 1790-1870

Most of the free royal cities and all mining cities of Hungary banned Jewish in-settlement by 1840.
Nevertheless, in my research I was first focusing my attention to the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, because in effect the roughly 50 years preceding the settlement permits for the inner areas of the indicated cities saw several waves of Jewish immigration in Hungary. However, it was the first important stage of mutual acculturation of the above-mentioned urban societies and Jewish communities. It was a period of time that is essential for the understanding of urban settlement, the subsequent integration and the controversial processes of assimilation/dissimilation  and intra-urban spatial segregation.  
The closing date of our study falls on the year of 1870 because my intent was to do an extensive survey of space and society structures relying on the data of the poll taken in that year, or to be more precise on the basis of the analytic sources of the Geoinformatic Social History Database of Debrecen (GISHDD) created by the digital processing of the manuscript maps and the statistical sheets of the age in Debrecen.

Social transformation and changes in daily life in Hungary, during the period of the change of system

Tibor Valuch

The second half of the 20th century saw fundamental alterations in Hungary’s social, economic and political relations in 1945, in 1948–9 and again in 1989–90. After the end of World War II, it seemed for a while as if a democratic political system could emerge, while market forces remained and social inequalities were moderated. That process of partial embourgeoisement and reinforcement of democratic transformation was interrupted in 1948–9, when the communists took power. Private ownership gave way to state ownership and the market to a strongly centralized planned economy. Apart from a  brief, heroic, failed experiment in the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, only the 1989–90  collapse of communism and change of system brought an end to dictatorship, reinstatement of a democratic political system, and reorganization of a market economy, with decisive consequences in the structure of Hungarian society and in daily life. This involved highly complicated processes, although the scope of this lecture precludes me from examining or analysing all the important problems. Essentially, therefore, this contribution seeks to answer two basic questions. What social consequences did the change of system bring? What effect did these changes have on daily life? 

Women in poverty during the socialist era in Hungary

Ibolya Czibere

A typical feature of the early socialist sources demonstrating the pauperdom of the agrarian and industrial Hungarian society before 1945 is that though they proved to be really thorough and can be utilized well even today, most of them were written as a form of political propaganda highlighting the peculiarities of the capitalist suppression before 1945 while ignoring the survival of poverty into the times following 1945. Considering these sources it may seem that the political and economic transition after 1949 at once solved the uncertainties of social deprivation, however they suppressed the facts that the governments in the period following the World War II could not manage the excessive poverty developed between 1900 and 1945. 

Effects of Poverty and Wealth on Identity

István Murányi

In the presentation we are referring to the analysis of a few variables of three national databases (Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia) of a recently completed international survey study (MYPLACE project). Empirically, MYPLACE employs a combination of survey, interview and ethnographic research instruments to provide new, pan-European data that not only measure levels of participation but capture the meaning young people attach to it.

Flyvbjerg (2006) contrasts ‘random selection’ with ‘information oriented selection’ where the former delivers representativeness and generalizability and the latter allows small samples to be theoretically productive through the careful selection of contrasting cases or ‘critical cases’.