English

Community is more than just a physical space

EDIT SCHRANZ

What happens if among the members of a society and among the smaller and larger units and groups making up the society trust and confidence seems to be disappearing at once? What happens if confidence reposed into each other fall victim to social differences as well as to the economic / cost-of-living boxing of modern information society? How to stop the crisis symptom that seems to be developing this way and which is shown in the fragmentation of communities?1 With other words, is it possible to “stick again together” a community or even a whole society started to disintegrate? The questions, even if not so characteristically phrased, provide sociologists actually with the scope of understanding our modern, individualistic world (Habermas 1994). Gusfield (1975) depicts dichotomy of community and society in a way that we should interpret community as a pervading, significant contrast. By now literature seems as if it was only be able to picture the changes taking place in the images both of the society and community describing them by even more pronounced, contradictory processes. The changes that send messages on the disintegration of categories and frames becoming insecure instead of the security and integration quasi missed by Habermas. It also seems as if—quasi as an answer given to this process—occlusion/seclusion both on the part of community members and the various communities from the seemingly unknown and insecure changes were more intensive (Légmán 2012). We intend to construe these phenomena on the next pages, but due to extension limits without the need for completeness of social interpretations. We want to do it with the help of mainly one dimension: value preference through the example of a given society, namely the Hungarian one. Thus we get to the stability and the solidarity of the members of the smallest unit of society, one which accepts and expresses various value preferences, the family.

Comparative Analyses on Youth Care in Hungary and Serbia

ANITA BURGUND – ANDREA RÁCZ

Last two decades there has been an increase in research area about youth leaving care. Until last decade of XX Century there has only been research on small scale samples describing needs and life of youth leaving care. After 1990 research which used different research technique and design start to appear in analyzes of the process of youth leaving care. This article provides a comparative overview of policies and practices regarding the transition from youth to independence and perceived differences in defining concepts, laws and outcomes of alternative care in Serbia and Hungary. In general, studies have shown that young people leaving alternative care face the risk of social exclusion and marginalization and a lack of political action directed at them as vulnerable group. Youth on care belong to unprivileged group because there is a high probability that they will become beneficiaries of the social protection system, become socially excluded but also dependent on social welfare services as adults.

The Controversy Surrounding the Intercountry Adoption

FANNI MURÁNYI

The purpose of this article is to identify characteristics of the legal framework of intercountry adoption. This study is specifically concerned with the international and Hungarian legislation. In the first part, the international conventions and the Hungarian rules are presented. These show that a considerable progress has been made in the last century in law-making. A short statistical analysis illustrates the role of Hungary in intercountry adoption. The final section considers possible risks and abuses in the process: exploitation, family tracing, loss of cultural heritage, over-representation Roma children, debate over closed or open adoption and adoption agencies. On the basis of the results of this study, it can be concluded that the intercountry adoption gives rise to a great debate and serious cause for complaining about abuses which weaken the children’s rights. This dissertation hopes to offer a comprehensive view on the advantages and challenges of intercountry adoption.

Who is in crisis? ...

Edit Schranz

Is it sexuality or the lack of it, or rather money or the lack of it that defines better the relationship between men and women? Have the position of women really changed a lot regarding sexual hierarchy from the image of the “cheap household manpower” to the self-conscious modern woman possessing an independent income or is that all just an illusion? There are changes that can be traced in the feminist literature from the pre-industrial society through the appearance of the paid labour force of women kept count of the result of the industrial revolution, as well as through the positive changes in the election and heritance rights considered from the women’s point of view to the modern, strengthening feminist fights for female quotes. Can these be really considered as big steps taken forward or rather just very small ones in respect of equality between genders considering the present picture of societies basically described as patriarchal in the literature? Proceeding along the theories we try to give an answer to the above questions in this study by focusing on the results that summarize the empiric study of a present-day female group of a given social position, namely deep poverty. At the same time, we are going to concern the issue of masculinity crisis to a large extent. According to our hypothesis, it is actually not clear whether only “masculinity is undermined” as a result of the general economic difficulties (unemployment) affecting the financial situation of families at a micro level. What happens to women in the meanwhile? 

Child protection models for mainstreaming child’s rights

Andrea Rácz

Thinking about and dealing with children, it is extremely important to ensure they get everything that is needed to unfold their skills and potential talents. The professionals working with children have to trust them and children living on the border of child protection, or those living in public care have to be supported in a way that their needs – special and unique – are taken into consideration just the same as if they lived with their families. The recognition of the family’s role in children’s life is inevitable; in care provision, it means the necessity to move towards an integrated, family-community based system of provision, which is capable of ensuring effective service packs for the primary and secondary target group of child protection, adjusting to the dual function of child protection. “Child protection is a social institution that was created to support another social institution, the family, in order to help the family in its tasks related to the child’ development and social inclusion, and if it is necessary, to take over the responsibility for the child from the family which is unable to ensure it.” (Domszky 2011: 3-4). First, the study presents Fox Harding’s typology about the system logics of services for children. Then, we deal with the need of strengthening the rights of children in care and illustrate it by two examples: 1) FICE: tender for good practices in child protection and 2) the Children’s Parliament 2014 which had the theme of social integration.

Idiosyncrasies of recent growing inequalities in Hungarian income distribution

Balázs Krémer

During past years of financial crises and “great recession” most of the European countries have experienced widening income inequalities. These growing disparities are multifactorial, not simply affected by earned incomes in labor markets, social transfers or fiscal policies and revenue regimes, but also by indirect consequences of earlier running indebtedness and amortizing loans.

This paper attempts to take into account various factors of growing income inequalities, and Hungarian biases from international trends. As a conclusion, we will argue that relatively high and rapid growths of Hungarian inequalities cannot seen and interpreted as an unlucky consequence of great recession, rather as an outcome of intended politics of ruling government.

Oldalak