English

“to work only precisely, nicely…” The brigade logs, as sources of the research of the working class of the Hungarian large-scale industry in the second half of 20th century

ANDRÁS KISS

Brigade logs have got rather little attention in the economic- and social history researches of the decades since the regime change. However, by appropriate source critique and by joint use of other type of sources we can gain very useful information from them. And we could say, that neither they had been used as quasi-sources for the history of the socialist enterprises in the course of pre-1989 researches in the field of the history of factories and enterprises. The obvious reason for this was that during the active period of the socialist brigades the logs in better cases were being administered in a systematic way, and provided with different notes. In the present study I try to explore the possibilities for interpretation and analysis of this type of source, and then I attempt to discuss – through the analysis of the examples of two enterprises of the vehicle industry – the possible ways of their use. I think that the brigade logs, alike as the registers, which could provide aid for the elaboration of the social history of the Hungarian large scale industry, may contribute to the better understanding of the movement, to the research of working-class life, and to the reconstruction of roles within the different social groups.

Revisiting enterprise politics in the interwar Hungary: The case of The Rimamurány–Salgótarján Iron Works Co.

RÉKA VÁRKONYI-NICKEL

The Rimamurány–Salgótarján Iron Works Co. in Salgótarján started to run up from 1871. The people who lived in the workers’ colony of the Steelworks in Salgótarján differentiated themselves from the rest of the local residents not only spatially but also in their appearance, as a result of their higher standard of living. At the begining of the 20th century the major streets of the colony (Acélgyári Street) had macadam or stoned surface and were lit with public street lightning. The duty of the socalled Dwelling Master was to guarantee neat, clean, tidy streets within the colony. Steelworkers had more opportunity to visit the shops and barbershop than those men who lived within the downtown. This difference was partly due to their higher income and partly due to the fact that the services of the comany’s shop and the barber at the colony were much cheaper than those of other local barbers since it was ordered so by factory management. Workers’ houses were up to the standards of the time, they did not pay rent or just a very low price and workers had a possibility to build their own garden houses on the land of the company. All this fundamentally changed in the second half of the 1940s owing to post-war lack of raw material and Socialist ’modernization’ and uniformization. The period of communist dictatorship after World War II, nationalization of the works and Socialist ’modernization’ created trauma at the colony.

Drawn Commuters – Caricature as a visual historical resource

ZSÓFIA KISŐRSI

Despite of the fact that during the time of state socialism commuters meant a continuously growing social group both in proportion and in size, writing about their social history has been pushed into the background so far. The author’s aim is to fill this gap by trying to discover the most of the available sources of different genres. The present study shows part of this larger volume work, it shows what it can add to our knowledge about a social group through traditional sources if we include caricatures of a given social group as visual historical sources in the analysis.

In this paper, the author analyses sixteen caricatures of commuters, published in “Ludas Matyi,” comparing written and audio visual sources. In the study, she tries, among other things, to find out if there was a definite commuter picture of “Ludas Matyi”, and if so, to what extent did this commuter’s image differ from that of other products in the press? To what extent did the satirical portrayal of commuters refer to long-distance commuters and to what extent to daily commuters? Were the real anomalies of commuting in the era reflected in Ludas Matyi?

The analysis discusses the economic and social processes that characterize the time of publishing the caricatures, and denominates the external and internal characteristics and emotions commuters were endowed with.The aim of the author is to present the method of caricature analysis, which emphasizes the comparability of resources.

Czech Interwar Photography between Art, Society and Politics

PAVLÍNA VOGELOVÁ

Interwar Czech photography in the cultural spectre from the viewpoint of media and technology is related with penetration to various areas without intentionally directed nature of genres or styles. Viewed in a context with the phenomena of new mass media, industrialization, leisure time and general cultural and sociological relations in the spatio-temporal compression of modernity, photography plays a major role in forming modern culture in the 1920’s and 1930’s, in the “golden era of photography”. I have focused on the tendencies of photographic expression, influence and thinking after World War I. I considered it is important to point to reversed flow of ideas, i.e. from other fields of human activity towards photography, when this concerns tools where the development of new photographic was projected back to artistic and general social levels.

How do the Spanish families face to crisis?

The types and consequences of coping strategies

PhD. LUCÍA MARTÍNEZ VIRTO

The impact of the crisis in Spain helped to harden the difficulties of a large number of households in Spain. Even though these conditions had a widespread impact, it has been more acute in families that prior to the crisis were dealing with difficult situations. The main objective of this paper is to identify strategies the households developed in order to face these difficulties. The results have been selected from a qualitative analysis of 34 excluded household´s life stories. From this analysis two interesting results were obtained: On the one hand, households have developed prevention and survival strategies. On the other hand, the study identifies the consequences of the strategies and their impact in terms of household´s social integration. With all the results, the paper invites to reflect on the limits of survival strategies.

Interpersonal relationships in Hungary – an overview

ALBERT, FRUZSINA – DÁVID, BEÁTA

Our paper aims to demonstrate that social structure has significant impact on the formation of interpersonal relations. We review and analyse the characteristics of ego-centric interpersonal networks of Hungarians based on data from nationally representative adult population surveys between the mid-1980’s up to 2015. We focus especially on core discussion networks, friendship ties and weak ties and analyse how the transition to market economy influenced interpersonal relationships. As expected, the large-scale social changes brought about by the transition changed interpersonal networks as well. During the first decade of the transition (in the 1990’s) one could not witness a significant change of personal networks, nonetheless the adaptation process was easier for people supported by strong, traditional family ties. Non-kin ties, especially friendships seem to gain significance at the expense of kin relationships. Overall, resources available through weak ties seem to be decreasing.

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